Standard 8mm is 8mm in width, and generally does not have any form of sound. Standard 8mm film has larger holes down side of the film compared to super 8mm.
Super 8mm, as with Standard 8mm is 8mm in width. It runs at a slightly faster fps and can also have sound, either Magnetic or Optical. Magnetic having a small brown strip down the side of the film, optical having a small clear strip down the side.
16mm film, as you might guess is 16mm in width and may have two forms of sound, either Magnetic or Optical. 16mm film with magnetic sound has a brown strip down side of the film, where optical has a clear strip.